Testing Private Functions

code better • have fun

A couple of days ago, I published a trivial little Elixir library that temporarily overrides the private status of functions while running tests.

I thought it was useful. I tend to decompose my work into lots of functions, and try to publicly expose only those that I want to be part of a module or class’s API. But I often want to test some particular aspect of the nonpublic functions. To do that, I’ve had to set up a suitable environment for the public APIs to ensure my private function gets called the way I want it to be called, and then work out how to tell from the public API whether it worked. This is indirect and laborious, so much so that I often just gave in and made the internal functions public.

In Ruby, there are cheats that let you invoke private methods. In Elixir, there aren’t. Hence my little library. It that changes the visibility of functions if they are being compiled for the purpose of running tests.

So far so good. I’m personally using this library every day, and my code seems clearer because of it.

But then I started getting comments. Not many, but they all seemed to share the same misconception. “You can’t test a private function! That’s an implementation detail. You can only test the public API.”

I think this is a common belief. Let me explain why I feel it is wrong.

keep_out.jpg

DimitryB via Flickr. [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0]

What is a private function?

A private function (or method) is one that can only be called from inside the module (or class) that defines it. It is invisible as far as the rest of the code is concerned.

Why do we need them?

A module is a collection of functions that share a common purpose: working out sales tax, interfacing to Twitter, creating a chord progression, and so on. The rest of the code in an application calls functions in a module when it needs that module’s expertise. For example, a Twitter module will have functions to send a tweet, read a tweet, and maybe subscribe to a timeline. The functions that do this are part of the modules external interface—its API.

The API functions are public. They are exposed to the rest of the app.

But an API function could be doing a complex job. So we would want to split it up into a number of subfunctions. These will typically be written in the same module. You can think of them as the implementation of the API.

Logically, they’re just functions. We can define them just as we define the API functions. But there’s a problem. Other people may read our code and see that, as well as the “official” API, we expose all these helper functions. And maybe one or two of these might be useful in their code. So they call them.

So what if someone calls my helper functions?

Imagine it’s a month later, and you realize that you could improve the implementation of the module you wrote. You get stuck in, rip out half the code and replace it with new stuff.

Now, you don’t want to change your API—other people depend on that. But you feel totally free to change any of the helpers. After all, they’re just there to implement the API. After to finish hacking, you make sure your API passes its tests, and publish your masterpiece.

Thirty seconds later the emails start arriving: “You broke my code.” People who (wrongly) relied on the internal implementation of your module suddenly found that the functions they use had disappeared, or had changed.

Their code was coupled to the internal implementation of yours.

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Quinn Dombrowski via Flickr. [CC BY-SA 2.0]

Why is coupling bad?

To my mind, there is only one rule when it comes to designing software:

Given the choice between two alternatives, choose the one that makes future change easier

Most of the principles of good design are just someone’s idea of how to codify some aspect of this.

Avoiding unnecessary coupling is one of those principles.

If thing Y depends on thing Z, then changes to thing Z affect thing Y. Even worse, if X depends on Y, then a change to Z might force a change to Y which then breaks X. And, to make it a total disaster, dependencies aren’t nice and linear like this. Instead, they form a complex mesh. In a bad (typical?) code base, these dependency chains can often interconnect the majority of the code.

The problem is that a change to any module in such a system has the potential to ripple through to every other part of the system. Change the calling sequence of a function, and potentially dozens of other modules will need to change, too. This is the software equivalent to the butterfly flapping its wings in Tokyo. It’s chaos. And it makes it hard (and stressful) to change code.

What’s this got to do with private functions?

Every time you code a call from module A to a function in module B, you set up a dependency between them. A becomes coupled to B.

That’s not a bad thing. The whole reason you write code is to have it be called. But you try to arrange things so that when you write a module you provide a public API, which you expect people to call, and a private implementation, which is none of their business.

In the old days, this was never actually enforced. You wrote comments saying one(), two(), and three() are the public API, and you’d have some kind of banner comment saying

/**************************************************/
/*  The low-level implementation follows...       */
/**************************************************/

Then language designers wised up, and added visibility modifiers. You could declare that the functions that formed your module’s API were publicly available, and the rest were private. Now you were free to change the internals, safe in the knowledge that, as long as you didn’t change the API, nothing would break as a result of your refactoring.

What’s this got to do with testing?

Nothing.

And that’s the point.

If I feel the need to test a piece of code, I want to isolate that code as much as I can. This lets my tests focus on just the thing they’re testing. Sure, I want to test my APIs. But I also want to isolate and test pieces of the implementation, too.

Doesn’t that mean your tests may fail if you change the implementation?

Of course.

But then you can’t refactor

Says who? Seriously.

Refactoring encourages you to change the implementation without changing the API. It suggests using tests to verify this. Those tests shouldn’t fail at the end of each step of refactoring. But they may well fail during the refactoring.

So if they can fail, then so can the tests that I write on my private implementation functions. The only difference is that the API tests act as proxies for the rest of the application. You shouldn’t change them—the same tests should run identically against the pre- and post-refactored code.

The tests of the implementation are volatile. If you break them, it could be because they are now testing the wrong thing. It’s perfectly OK to change these to reflect the changes to the implementation.

The point?

  • It’s good to decompose complex functions into smaller ones. Ideally each function has just one responsibility.

  • It’s good to differentiate the stuff that shouldn’t change (your public interface) from the stuff that may change (your internal implementation). Making the implementation private makes this easier.

  • You should test code at both the API level and at the granular level. Visibility modifiers make the latter nearly impossible. Hence the Private library.